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Extreme Sports and the Body

There are a number of things athletes should do before going at conquering or attempting extreme sports for the first time. Here is a list to go by for the first extreme sporting event:

  • Go to see the doctor. Have a complete physical done to make sure your body is compatible for extreme sports. Physicians will normally check weight and do a series of physical examinations and blood work as well. The heart is the main thing that will be focused to make sure it can handle the circumstances. There is no such thing as being over careful when it comes to the body.
  • Use a training manual. There are numerous training guides that can be found today. There is even one that is labeled. Go to the book store or library and get a book on the extreme sport. Following a training manual will prepare the athlete for what to expect as well as what needs to be done for a safe event.
  • Exercise. The best thing for a extreme athlete is to keep the body fit and trim and athletic. There are some sports that require strength and may need time spent on the bar bells and other sports may need endurance and need time spent in aerobics. Finally there are others that need a lot of concentration. This is where yoga comes in handy.
  • Research equipment. Research what kind of equipment is needed for the event. Talk to athletes that have done the sport in the past and present. Get perspectives from many people on what needs to be taken on the event. It is always better to be over prepared than not have enough.
  • Keep attention to weather conditions. Always check, double check and triple check the weather for the event. This is a big concern if the event is to be held outdoors. The weather is liable for a big chunk of injuries in the outdoors. Rock climbing in the rain or diving in a lightning storm can be very hazardous for athletes.
  • Always pair up with the buddy system. Never do any type of sport alone. It is extremely dangerous and not very intelligent to do so. Danger is the middle name of extreme sports. Make sure it is not the emphasis of the event.
  • Fish oil. Taking fish oil supplements can help you to build lean muscle masses, reduce risk of injury and to perform your best while playing sports.

The quantity of food, water and vitamins can make a difference in the performance of all sports. This is called sports nutrition. There have been special diets and ways of life for athletes since centuries ago with the Olympic Games with the Romans and Greeks. In the year of 2008, it was reported that 65 % of Americans followed an exercise routine by the US News.

There are many different supplements that are known to help with performance and endurance in sports. The outcome can sometimes lead to the use of illegal substances. Anabolic steroids are one. They relate to testosterone which is a hormone that rapidly builds mass and strength. It can have multiple side effects with its use including gender related effects and an increase in blood pressure. Another illegal practice is blood doping which was invented by the World War II pilots in the 1940's. Blood doping is the illegal process of increasing the amount of red blood cells that are in the blood stream.

In the 1940's training was designed for strength athletes and dietary protein was introduced to those people’s diets. Dietary protein helps to safely gain muscle mass and strength. Although they help an over dosed amount could lead to calcium loss, renal and liver damage, gastro intestinal problems, dehydration and gout. Another is creatine. It will increase performance in exercising and strength. Glutamine which is primarily found in whey is an amino acid that is found in the human body more than any other protein supplement. Other supplements that have had studies done and have brought a lot of attention are chromium, ephedra and androstenedione. These substances have a higher risk and no evidence of benefits. Red Bull drinks are becoming more predominant in the world. It is an energy drink that caused an increase in performance of 83% of drinkers with a 4.7% energy increase according to the University of Texas. Some of the biggest increases in performance come from carbohydrates, caffeine and Vitamin B. Sports drinks like Gatorade are used frequently. These sports drinks produce minerals and electrolytes that help to keep the body hydrated during sports of all kinds. In the 1960's Gatorade was invented. It was introduced by the Gainesville Gators at the University of Florida who had better performances when they drank a drink that contained sucrose and glucose in water. These drinks of all names in the same content hit the shelves in the 1970's. Although they help with dehydration they do not contain protein which is a supplement that is needed prior to sporting events. Milk was founded in 2008 to have an increase in muscle protein balance. It contains many nutrients, electrolytes and other components that help with performance. It is now known to replace fluids lost during sporting events a lot faster than any sporting drinks made.


Safety in climbing

Rock climbing is an extreme sport that can cause many different and serious injuries. Because of this there are many different precautions and training done before a climber takes the big step. There is also a ton of equipment designed with only safety in mind. They include:

  • Helmet
  • Special Climbing Shoes
  • Belay Gloves
  • Tape
  • Haul Bag


The helmet is the piece of safety equipment that everyone knows well. A helmet is used for many sports including climbing, football, baseball, race car driving and hockey. This piece although primarily for falls is also used in climbing to help protect the skull and head from debris that can fall when climbing. This can be rocks or other equipment from a climber above you or more.

Special Climbing Shoes

A climbing shoe used in rock climbing is designed especially for this purpose. It is covered in a layer of vulcanized rubber to help the climbers with grip and friction when climbing. They are normally thicker that a normal shoes and very snug to the foot. Some may even have padding made of foam to be more comfortable.

Belay Gloves

Belay gloves are an option that some climbers may pass on. Many climbers say that when using belay gloves they don't have enough friction and the gloves make them lose grip. Other climber though state that the belay gloves help tremendously with the possibility of rope burn during a climb. These special gloves are normally made from leather or an equal substitute material. Typically they come with the palm and fingers of the glove having padding that is heat resistant.


Tape, primarily medical tape is used a lot when climbing. It is used both as a prevention and repair to minor injuries. Fixing flappers is a big use as well as binding the wrists or fingers. Binding can help to prevent tendon problems from arising over and over.

Haul Bag

This is an over large bag containing equipment for climbing that is thick and un-yielding and are sometime referred to as pigs.

Tips for Climbing

There are many different tips that are given for safe climbing. Here are the top ten found:

  • Checking the harness. Always double check the climber and belayer harness buckles. Make sure they are doubled back. Do this after prepared and in the harness before attempting to do anything else.
  • Check the knots on all equipment being used for the climb. This includes the tie-in knot of the lead climber and make sure it has a back up knot as well. Check the rope in the leg loops and waist loop in the harness as well.
  • HELMET. Always be prepared and wear a helmet that is suitable for the climb. This could save a life. This is included for the climber as well as the belayer.
  • Check the belay device has a properly threaded rope. Make sure the carabiner used at the belay device is a locking one.
  • Use a long rope. The rope is wanted to be a long enough length to reach the anchor and a belay ledge.
  • Be alert. Always pay attention to what is going on around you as well as the climbers and belays. Always be alert and pay attention to the lead climber. It is never wise to consult yourself with other things including people or doing anything but focusing.
  • Have enough gear and everything you may need for a safe and successful climb. The saying is it is better to have too much then not enough. Plan it on paper and visually. Although another climber, guide or guide book may tell you never put your safety in someone else's hands. Do the math on your own.
  • Put the rope over your leg during the climb. This is something that needs to be done all the time.
  • Always clip the rop in a safe standard. Do not back clip ever. Clip the rope through the carabiners. This is a must. Make sure to use locking carabiners where required as well.
  • Use safe anchors where required. Use two anchors at the top of the route or pitch always. More can be used but there should be a minimum of at least two. Use locking carabiners when lowering below the top rope off the anchors.

Sports Related Injuries

Injuries During Sports Statistics

There are many different injuries that can occur in sports, especially if it is a contact sport such as Hockey or Football. One out of every 25 people seek professional help for a sports related injury every year. 1.35 million Children have a sports related injury a year. From the year of 1991 to 1998 sports related injuries increased by a total of 33 percent. A total of 276,000 injuries that were taken to the emergency of people who were age 35 to 54 rooms in 1991 with injuries that were not treated…In 1998, this number was increased to 365,000. This increase was reported to have cost over $18.7 billion dollars in related things for improvement and treatment. As the years go by authorities see this number increasing rapidly. The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System otherwise known as NEISS stated in 2006 that it had averaged over half a million injuries for basketball related accidents alone in the year of 2006. They also related that the number was closer to two million for other sports like football, bicycling, etc. The leading cause of deaths in sports related injuries is bicycling. Mainly because these are involved in motor vehicle accidents causing traumatic brain injuries.

Famous Related Injuries

Although there are millions of accidents that occur each year the big ones is regal that everyone hear about. These are the ones that are involved with famous people. Some of these well known instances are:

  • Tomas Vokan Professional ice hockey player who was carted from the ring with injury when another player swung his stick slamming him in the face. Results were stitches across the face.
  • Jessica Dube Professional ice skater who needed 80 stitches after her fall on the ice.
  • Frank Gifford Professional football player who suffered a concussion that was so bad during the 8th game he was lost for the remainder of the season.
  • Leon Washington Famous football player who sustained an injury after he was taken down by legs. His bone was reported to have broken the skin when it snapped causing the need for hours in surgery.
  • Corey Hill Professional MMA fighter who sustained painful broken bones especially the one from his high kick.
  • Donald Audette Professional hockey player who sustained severe cut through artery.
  • Tyrone Prothro College football player whose injury cast him a rod in the leg and the ability to play football again.
  • Kevin Everett Professional football player who had a life threatening injury to the spinal cord.
  • Napoleon McCallum Suffered major injuries that resulted in 6 different surgeries to his leg. He was told that if it did not go well it would need to be amputated. Thankfully the surgery went well but the injury ended his career.
  • Joe Theismann The most well known injury in football was his mangled leg injury that cost him his football career.
  • Clint Malarchuk Injury to his neck and carotid. This injury required the hockey player to receive over 300 stitches but he was back on the ice in a matter of weeks.

Children and Sports Related Injuries

The need is very high for parents to stress the need for stretching and warm up to the children of today. Many children do not know the severity of actions done during a sports event that can have life altering results. It is estimated that nearly 2 million injuries a year involve high school students which results in 30,000 hospital stays and 500,000 physician visits. The children under age 14 result in over 3.5 million a year. Out of all the sports related injuries brought to hospitals children average around 40% of them this includes a total of 21% being head injuries. The total breakdown of the sports when relating to injuries is 22% is soccer, 25% is baseball, 15% is baseball, 28% is football and 12% to the remaining sports.

What to do in Case of an Injury

The main thing to remember in case of a sports related injury is to breath. Stay calm and to think of something else other than the main it may be causing. I know easier said than done. This will help your body in the end. Most serious injuries can result in severe pain that blocks out all other reasoning. If the person stays calm or at least try, it can help the body from going into shock. Shock can lead to major injuries including loss of oxygen to the brain, heart attack and organ damage. Neurogenic shock is a type of shock that is cause with spinal cord injuries and can be deadly. The second thing to remember is be still. Wait till professional help arrives. Most people are in a state of shock when a bad injury occurs. The need for someone who is professional to check you is important. Many spinal cord injuries cannot be accessed right away. People have welded away from accidents feeling fine only to find out later they have a major spinal cord injury.


Underwater Sports

Sports That Can be Done Underwater

There are number of sports that can be done under water. Many people relate underwater sports to scuba diving, snorkeling and breath-hold diving. Although these are some underwater sports, there are many more. These include:

  • Fin swimming
  • Spear fishing
  • Underwater football & hockey & rugby
  • Underwater photography
  • Underwater target shooting
  • Aquathlon
  • Free diving
  • Sport diving
  • Under water orienteering

Fin swimming & Spearfishing

This underwater sport has a total of four different techniques. This sport is swimming on the surface with the use of a snorkel and fins (when swimming underwater using fins with a scuba tank or holding the breath). There have been many competitions that involved fin swimming. The fist competition was in 1976. It started as a World Games sport in 1981 and has been a competition there since. It is organized competition through the world and continent levels by CMAS.

Spearfishing is a sport that involves the capture and hunt of fish underwater. A spear gun is normally used or another sort of tackle system.

Underwater Football, Hockey and Rugby

Underwater football is normally a game that consists of two players on a team. It is normally played in a swimming pool and includes equipment used for snorkeling including a snorkel, mask and fins.

Underwater hockey is also called Octopush. This is where two teams use a system to move pucks across the bottom of a swimming pool.

Underwater rugby is played in the same concept as underwater football. The ball used in filled with saltwater. There is a heavy metal bucket on the bottom used for a goal. In the 1960's this game was invented by German diving clubs for training for physical fitness. In 1978, the CMAS recognized the sport and was played as a world championship for the first time in 1980.

Underwater Photography

This underwater sport consists of individual players dropping at the same spot for two days at the same time. Using an underwater camera and scuba diving gear they travel to take photographs. These films are then given and judged on five different categories and given an overall score. It was invented in the year of 1985.

Underwater Target Shooting

This sport is known as Tiro al Blanco Subacuatico in Spanish and Tir sur cible subaquatique in French. This sport consists of competitors showing off their experience with a spear gun in a swimming pool. It is primarily played in Europe. It was invented in early 1980's in the country of France.


This is also known as wrestling underwater. Two people wearing fins and masks attempt to remove the ribbon for the other's ankle. The winner is the one who gets the ribbon. It is played in a ring that is inside of a swimming pool and is played in three different rounds. The rounds are a total of 30 second rounds and may add a fourth round in the event of a tie. It was invented in the 1980's in Russia which was known as the USSR then. It was played in 1993 as an international sport and CMAS recognized it in 2008.

Free Diving & Sport Diving

There are two different organizations that control free diving. They are the AIDA International and the CMAS. It is known as an individual sport and consists of awards based on one person’s performance. At the World contest for Teams from the Aida that is held twice a year the score is combined with other scores on a team of divers. This is the only time it is not an individual sport. The sport of free diving can be done by either men or women.

Sport diving is a diving sport that used scuba diving equipment. It is done in a swimming Pool. The competitions of sport diving can be individual contests and be played as a team contest or game as well. The game was developed in the late 1990's in Spain. The competitions are primarily held in Europe. The game is known as Buceo De Competicion in Spanish. It is known as Plongee Sportive in French.

All the underwater sports mentioned are played and competed in around the world. They are all still played today in competitions.

Preparing for Sports

Why Warm Up?

It is important to warm up before any physical activity or sporting event is done. The warm up not only provides motivation but there are some good health benefits to doing it as well. People who do not warm up and cool down before and after strenuous activity are normally the ones hurt or suffering from an injury that can sometimes leave someone off their feet for weeks at a time. Some of the health benefits to warming up include blood circulation throughout the body, loosening muscles and making them more limber, sends oxygen to muscles as well as vitamins. This gives the body the ability to breath better. One of the biggest problem people have is the increase in heart rate and blood pressure when doing any kind of activity. Warm up will help with that and help with keeping it under control. Helps so that nerve to muscle pathways are prepared for the work they are about to do. Coordination and reflex improves as well. In the end not only does the body get what it needed to complete the job but the body feels a whole lot better.

Exercises to Do

There are a number of different exercises that can be done to warm the body up before doing anything strenuous. They will do a number of things including stretching and steadying the heart rate and preparing the body for what is about to come. The exercises to do are:

  • Arm circles: Stand with feet shoulder width apart. Rotate arms in small circles forward. After doing the amount you want to do which is normally around 20 stands still for 10 seconds. During this time slowly breath in through the nose and out through the mouth.
  • Jumping jacks: Put feet should width apart and put arms straight out at sides. Simultaneously raise your arms straight up to the ceiling. At the same time jumps to move your feet together. After return your arms back pointing straight out for the sides of the body and jump to move legs back in a position that is shoulder length apart. Repeat over and over. Normally 25 times.
  • Squats: Stand with feet shoulder width apart. Put arms straight out in front of you. Bend the knees keeping arms straight out and back completely straight.
  • Jump rope: Grab and jump rope. Put one hand in each handle. As you flip the rope over the head jump when it comes to the feet and flip it back over the head doing this over and over repeatedly.
  • Walking: Walking in place keeps the heart rate level and helps to keep the body temperature down. Walk at a fast abrupt walk but don't run.
  • Upper body twists: Stand with feet shoulder width apart. Put hand and the hips. Twist at the waist to face the left side of the room. Then turn back to face the opposite direction and continue twisting keeping a standing straight stance.

Stretches that can be done

There are numerous stretches one can do to get the muscles ready. There are tons of muscles that need to be stretched to make the work out easier. Some of these muscles are:

  • Hamstrings These are the muscles in the back of the thigh. They are slightly below the buttock. This is the muscle that most injuries derive from.
  • Quads These are the muscles in the front of the thigh just above the knee.
  • Biceps In the arm between the shoulder and the elbow.

and more.

Injuries from lack of warming up

People don't realize the extent of injuries caused because of lack of judgment. If people do not warm up they can not only sprain something or pull something, they can tear ligaments, separate muscle and more. Some of the most famous baseball players, soccer players, basketball players and football players have had serious injuries resulting in time off they did not want especially if it is during season. Sometimes the only thing that can be done is ice for the swelling and keeping it elevated for reduction in swelling.


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